Coturn

Coturn is a libre STUN and TURN server software that allows users of chat protocols (Such as XMPP and Matrix) to perform WebRTC voice and video calls despite them being behind NATs.

Almost every self-hosted voice and video conferencing program (such as Jitsi and Nextcloud's Talk app) will require Coturn or some other equivalent turnserver to function properly.

Installation

Coturn is available in the Debian repositories:

apt install coturn

Configuration

Base configuration

Coturn's configuration file is /etc/turnserver.conf. There are a few aspects that need to be changed in order to get a fully-functioning turnserver.

Here is an example of some sane defaults:

server-name=turn.example.org
realm=turn.example.org
listening-ip=your_public_ip

listening-port=3478
min-port=10000
max-port=20000

## The "verbose" option is useful for debugging issues
verbose

Authentication

There are two options for authentication on a turnserver:

  1. Usernames and passwords,
  2. or authentication secrets.

Depending on what self-hosted service is being used in conjunction with Coturn, you may need one or the other of these two options.

Usernames and Passwords

To utilize username and password authentication with Coturn, add the following configuration in turnserver.conf:

lt-cred-mech
user=username:password

Authentication Secrets

To utilize authentication secrets with Coturn, add the following configuration in turnserver.conf:

use-auth-secret
static-auth-secret=your_auth_secret

TURNS (TLS Encryption)

Some self-hosted services (such as Matrix and XMPP) may support the use of TURNS: An encrypted version of TURN, which allows for WebRTC connections to be established with the use of an encrypted TLS tunnel, just like HTTPS allows for encrypted viewing of websites.

To utilize TURNS, certificates need to be declared for turn.example.org in turnserver.conf:

cert=/etc/letsencrypt/live/turn.example.org/fullchain.pem
pkey=/etc/letsencrypt/live/turn.example.org/privkey.pem

Starting Coturn

After all configuration changes are complete, Coturn can be started with its systemd daemon:

systemctl restart coturn

Congratulations! You've successfully setup a Coturn server!


*Written by Denshi.

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